A Look at the Science

The force on the shoulders is:

  1. Far below comfort thresholds we have measured in lab (Yandell et al. 2020),
  2. Far below forces that damage skin or other biological tissues, and
  3. Below recommended guidelines for shoulder loads from backpacks.

A person’s muscles typically apply over 1000 N of force (150% body weight) on the shoulder during lifting (Blanche 2017); whereas the Apex applies forces less than 150 N (20% body weight).

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