A Look at the Science
The force on the shoulders is:
- Far below comfort thresholds we have measured in lab (Yandell et al. 2020),
- Far below forces that damage skin or other biological tissues, and
- Below recommended guidelines for shoulder loads from backpacks.
A person’s muscles typically apply over 1000 N of force (150% body weight) on the shoulder during lifting (Blanche 2017); whereas the Apex applies forces less than 150 N (20% body weight).
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